Entourage Effect: Full-Spectrum Vs. Isolate

Beyond CBD: A Fuller Range Of Benefits

What is the Entourage Effect and why should you choose Full-Spectrum CBD? First off, CBD by itself is pretty awesome. But using only CBD may mean missing out on the full benefits found in real Full-Spectrum CBD.

In this guide, we’ll explain the benefits of Full-Spectrum CBD vs. Isolate CBD and what makes a real Full-Spectrum product. We’ll also explain how you can naturally enhance your CBD experience for the most effective relief.

entourage effect

Why Real Full-Spectrum Matters

There’s over 100 different cannabinoids found in hemp, each with their own unique health benefits!

While CBD & THC are the most common, there’s also cannabinoids like CBDV, CBG, THCV, CBN, CBC, and etc. Each cannabinoid has its own unique benefits which you might not get by only having CBD & THC – which unfortunately most brands only have in their “full-spectrum” products.

This is why real full-spectrum CBD products matter, as they should have the most widest range of cannabinoids for us to experience the most complete range of health benefits.

Compared to a formula with only CBD & THC, a real full-spectrum formula with CBD, CBG, CBDV & THCV will simply have more potential benefits and be the more effective formula for pain, anxiety, sleep and more.

What are the benefits of other Cannabinoids?

While CBD can help manage as sleep, chronic pain and anxiety, it may not be as effective as other cannabinoids such as a full-spectrum formula with CBG, CBDV, or THCV might be for certain ailments.

CBG – Gut Health & Pain-Relief

CBG may have powerful antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, which could benefit issues such as IBS, colitis and acne.

CBDV – Skincare & Braincare

CBDV may be highly effective as an anti-acne skincare agent and could have powerful neuroprotective effects for those suffering from nausea or epilepsy. CBDV may also have benefits for those suffering from headaches or chronic nerve pain.

THCV – Anti-Anxiety & Boosts Focus (Non-Psychoactive)

THCV, a rare and exclusive cannabinoid, may be a greater anxiety suppressant than CBD, in addition to potential benefits for weight-loss while also boosting mental clarity. THCV is much like the opposite of THC, actually working to block receptors that respond to THC. THCV is completely non-psychoactive and it cannot get you high.

Cannabinoids Are Kind of Like Vitamins..

A balanced and healthy diet means having a variety of vitamins and nutrients, for the most complete health benefits. We don’t aim to have just one vitamin.

A balanced diet and healthy lifestyle also means having a variety of cannabinoids for the greatest range of benefits – which means a full-spectrum CBD formula. Having many cannabinoids at once will also create a synergestic “Entourage Effect.”

entourage effect

What is the Entourage Effect?

When you mix CBD, CBG, CBDV, THCV and more together..

When cannabinoids are taken together, they can enhance the effects of each other. This is called the Entourage Effect. Cannabinoids are also enhanced by other plant compounds such as terpenes (smell & flavour compounds found in fruits).

When taken together (like in real Full-Spectrum CBD), Cannabinoids & Terpenes can create a powerful synergestic entourage effect by:

  • Amplifying the effects of each other.
  • Balancing out the negative effects of each other.
  • Making up for what the other is lacking in benefits.

CBD & THC – Balancing Out the Negatives

THC by itself has many benefits, but it’s also linked to negative effects such as increased anxiety, risk of psychosis, increased depression, and of course, increased appetite. Long-term use of THC has also been linked to reduced concentration, decreased short-term memory and impaired motor skills.

Nn nature THC doesn’t normally occur by itself. Rather, THC usually comes with CBD in wild cannabis & hemp plants. It’s this CBD that helps counteract the negative effects of THC such as anxiety and paranoia – effectively “balancing it out” while still allowing you to have the positive effects of THC’s pain relief. This is a clear case of the entourage effect happening in nature!

THC & THCV – Removing the Negatives & Enhancing the Positives

THCV is a unique and rare cannabinoid that actually has the opposite effects of THC. When combined with THC, THCV can reduce the negatives of THC while enhancing the positives of it.

By using THCV with THC you can reduce the anxiety & hunger of THC, while enhancing the creative energy of THC by boosting your energy & focusdecreasing your appetite, and reducing your anxiety. THCV may also have powerful neuroprotective benefits for Parkinson’s, antipsychotic effects and shows promise as an anti-acne agent.

CBD, CBG, CBDV & THCV – The Perfect Overall Formula

CBD, CBG, CBDV & THCV. Each cannabinoid is best for at its own speciality. CBD is amazing all-around for sleep, pain & anxiety. CBG may be a greater anti-inflammatory than CBD and is beneficial for IBS/digestive issue. CBDV may be great for skincare & braincare. THCV may be amazing for boosting your energy, focus and reducing your anxiety. All together, having CBD, CBG, CBDV & THCV gives you the perfect overall formula for the most complete range of benefits.

Enhance Your CBD with Fruits & Vegetables!

The Entourage Effect – Synergize With Terpenes

But wait there’s more! In addition to cannabinoids, there are compounds known as terpenes that can enhance the entourage effect of Full-Spectrum CBD.

Where can you find them? They’re right In your kitchen!

Terpenes are the taste and smell compounds in fruits, vegetables and flowers. Terpenes are why lemons taste and smells like lemons, and why strawberries taste and smell like strawberries. Terpenes are naturally produced in plants and may have direct, synergistic benefits when combined with cannabinoids in Full-Spectrum CBD.

entourage effect

Three common household terpenes include caryophyllene, limonene and myrcene.

Caryophyllene is found in herbs and spices like black pepper, basil, oregano and of course in cannabis. It’s that spicey, powerful scent that gives pepper its kick. Caryophyllene has been suggested to have anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

Limonene is responsible for the distinct, citrus smell in fruits like lemons, oranges and limes and in cannabis strains like Lemon Haze. Limonene has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, pain-relief, relaxative and antioxidant effects.

Myrcene is responsible for the sweet, tangy smell of fruits like mangoes and nectarines, and the scent in strains like Blue Dream and Sour Diesel. Myrcene can also be found in plants like bay leaves, hops, lemon grass, basil and rosemary. Myrcene has the synergistic effect of enhancing and strengthening the effect of THC, as it “allows more THC to reach brain cells.” Myrcene has also been suggested to have anti-pain, anti-inflammatory and sleep benefits.

In conclusion, by supplementing your Full-Spectrum CBD with natural foods, you can add boost your Entourage Effect with terpenes found in common household foods.

How Can I Best Experience the Entourage Effect?

Made in BC with all-natural ingredients, our Premium Full-Spectrum Oil Tincture delivers a revolutionary blend of CBD, CBG, CBDV and THCV for the most potent entourage effect for the most complete range of benefits.

Real Full-Spectrum for All Canadians

Other brands simply don’t have a full-spectrum like ours, as most only have CBD & THC in their formula vs. CBDNorth’s real Full-Spectrum Complex with CBD, CBG, CBDV & THCV.

So if you’re looking to experience the most potent entourage effect that comes only from real Full-Spectrum CBD, our premium tincture is the perfect option for all Canadians!

$70.00$240.00

*Our goal is to deliver affordable cannabinoids to those need. We offer big savings through our assistance program for those with COVID Relief, veterans, students, disability, low-income status, and public safety workers.

References:

CBD – (Click for CBD Guide)

Relief for Neuropathic / Chronic Pain

Mandolini, G. M., Lazzaretti, M., Pigoni, A., Oldani, L., Delvecchio, G., & Brambilla, P. (2018). Pharmacological properties of cannabidiol in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a critical overview. Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences, 1-9.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26260390

Mücke, M., Phillips, T., Radbruch, L., Petzke, F., & Häuser, W. (2018). Cannabis‐based medicines for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. The Cochrane Library.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29513392

Jensen, B., Chen, J., Furnish, T., & Wallace, M. (2015). Medical marijuana and chronic pain: a review of basic science and clinical evidence. Current pain and headache reports19(10), 50.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26325482

Burns, T. L., & Ineck, J. R. (2006). Cannabinoid analgesia as a potential new therapeutic option in the treatment of chronic pain. Annals of Pharmacotherapy40(2), 251-260.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16449552

Brunt, T. M., van Genugten, M., Höner-Snoeken, K., van de Velde, M. J., & Niesink, R. J. (2014). Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology34(3), 344-349.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24747979

Sleep Disorders

Babson, K. A., Sottile, J., & Morabito, D. (2017). Cannabis, cannabinoids, and sleep: a review of the literature. Current psychiatry reports19(4), 23.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28349316

Fitzcharles, M. A., Baerwald, C., Ablin, J., & Häuser, W. (2016). Efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabinoids in chronic pain associated with rheumatic diseases (fibromyalgia syndrome, back pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis). Der Schmerz30(1), 47-61.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26767993

Multiple Sclerosis

Iskedjian, M., Bereza, B., Gordon, A., Piwko, C., & Einarson, T. R. (2007). Meta-analysis of cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain. Current medical research and opinion23(1), 17-24.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK74699/

Lakhan, S. E., & Rowland, M. (2009). Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. BMC neurology9(1), 59.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19961570

Wade, D. T., Collin, C., Stott, C., & Duncombe, P. (2010). Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of Sativex (nabiximols), on spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal16(6), 707-714.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20558502

Wright, S., Duncombe, P., & Altman, D. G. (2012). Assessment of blinding to treatment allocation in studies of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex®) in people with multiple sclerosis: a new approach. Trials13(1), 189.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3487910/

McPartland, J. M., Guy, G. W., & Di Marzo, V. (2014). Care and feeding of the endocannabinoid system: a systematic review of potential clinical interventions that upregulate the endocannabinoid system. PloS one9(3), e89566.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3951193/

Antioxidant Effects

Cuba, L. F., Salum, F. G., Cherubini, K., & Figueiredo, M. A. Z. (2017). Cannabidiol: an alternative therapeutic agent for oral mucositis?. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics42(3), 245-250.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28191662

Martin-Santos, R., Fagundo, A. B., Crippa, J. A., Atakan, Z., Bhattacharyya, S., Allen, P., … & McGuire, P. (2010). Neuroimaging in cannabis use: a systematic review of the literature. Psychological medicine40(3), 383-398.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19627647

Ashton, C. H., Moore, P. B., Gallagher, P., & Young, A. H. (2005). Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential. Journal of Psychopharmacology19(3), 293-300.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15888515

Antipsychotic Properties of CBD (Schizophrenia)

Iseger TA, Bossong MG (March 2015). “A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans”. Schizophrenia Research. 162 (1–3): 153–61.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25667194

Iseger, T. A., & Bossong, M. G. (2015). A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans. Schizophrenia research162(1-3), 153-161.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25667194

Bostwick, J. M. (2012, February). Blurred boundaries: the therapeutics and politics of medical marijuana. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 87, No. 2, pp. 172-186). Elsevier.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3538401/

IBS / Gut Inflammation

Couch, D. G., Maudslay, H., Doleman, B., Lund, J. N., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2018). The use of cannabinoids in colitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Inflammatory bowel diseases24(4), 680-697.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29562280

Epilepsy

Stockings, E., Zagic, D., Campbell, G., Weier, M., Hall, W. D., Nielsen, S., … & Degenhardt, L. (2018). Evidence for cannabis and cannabinoids for epilepsy: a systematic review of controlled and observational evidence. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry89(7), 741-753.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29511052

Reddy, D. S., & Golub, V. M. (2016). The pharmacological basis of cannabis therapy for epilepsy. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics357(1), 45-55.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26787773

High Blood Pressure & Heart Rate

Sultan, S. R., Millar, S. A., England, T. J., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2017). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the haemodynamic effects of Cannabidiol. Frontiers in pharmacology8, 81.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28286481

Addiction

Hurd, Y. L., Yoon, M., Manini, A. F., Hernandez, S., Olmedo, R., Ostman, M., & Jutras-Aswad, D. (2015). Early phase in the development of cannabidiol as a treatment for addiction: opioid relapse takes initial center stage. Neurotherapeutics12(4), 807-815.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26269227

Prud’homme, M., Cata, R., & Jutras-Aswad, D. (2015). Cannabidiol as an intervention for addictive behaviors: a systematic review of the evidence. Substance abuse: research and treatment9, SART-S25081.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4444130/

Anxiety & Depression

Marco, E. M., García-Gutiérrez, M. S., Bermúdez-Silva, F. J., Moreira, F., Guimarães, F., Manzanares, J., & Viveros, M. P. (2011). Endocannabinoid system and psychiatry: in search of a neurobiological basis for detrimental and potential therapeutic effects. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience5, 63.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3186912/

Zhornitsky, S., & Potvin, S. (2012). Cannabidiol in humans—the quest for therapeutic targets. Pharmaceuticals5(5), 529-552.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24281562

Crippa, J. A., Derenusson, G. N., Chagas, M. H., Atakan, Z., Martín-Santos, R., Zuardi, A. W., & Hallak, J. E. (2012). Pharmacological interventions in the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis: a systematic review of literature. Harm reduction journal9(1), 7.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3294246/

Memory

Stern, C. A., Gazarini, L., Takahashi, R. N., Guimaraes, F. S., & Bertoglio, L. J. (2012). On disruption of fear memory by reconsolidation blockade: evidence from cannabidiol treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology37(9), 2132.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22549120

Diabetes

Liou, G. I. (2010). Diabetic retinopathy: role of inflammation and potential therapies for anti-inflammation. World journal of diabetes1(1), 12.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3083879/

Weight Loss

Le Foll, B., Trigo, J. M., Sharkey, K. A., & Le Strat, Y. (2013). Cannabis and Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for weight loss?. Medical hypotheses80(5), 564-567.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23410498

CBG – (Click for CBG Guide)

Gut Inflammation (Colitis)

Couch, D. G., Maudslay, H., Doleman, B., Lund, J. N., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2018). The use of cannabinoids in colitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Inflammatory bowel diseases24(4), 680-697.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29562280

IBS

Borrelli, F., Fasolino, I., Romano, B., Capasso, R., Maiello, F., Coppola, D., … & Izzo, A. A. (2013). Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Biochemical pharmacology85(9), 1306-1316.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23415610

Acne & Skin Diseases

Giacoppo, S., Gugliandolo, A., Trubiani, O., Pollastro, F., Grassi, G., Bramanti, P., & Mazzon, E. (2017). Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264. 7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study. European journal of histochemistry: EJH61(1).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27094344

Pucci, M., Rapino, C., Di Francesco, A., Dainese, E., D’addario, C., & Maccarrone, M. (2013). Epigenetic control of skin differentiation genes by phytocannabinoids. British journal of pharmacology170(3), 581-591.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3791996/

Neuroprotective Properties for Huntington's, Parkinson's & Alzheimer's

Fernández-Ruiz, J; Moro, M. A; Martínez-Orgado, J (2015). “Cannabinoids in Neurodegenerative Disorders and Stroke/Brain Trauma: From Preclinical Models to Clinical Applications”. Neurotherapeutics. 12 (4): 793–806. doi:10.1007/s13311-015-0381-7

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26260390

Valdeolivas, S., Navarrete, C., Cantarero, I., Bellido, M. L., Muñoz, E., & Sagredo, O. (2015). Neuroprotective properties of cannabigerol in Huntington’s disease: studies in R6/2 mice and 3-nitropropionate-lesioned mice. Neurotherapeutics12(1), 185-199.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25252936

Diabetes

Smeriglio, A., Giofrè, S. V., Galati, E. M., Monforte, M. T., Cicero, N., D’Angelo, V., … & Circosta, C. (2018). Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol. Fitoterapia127, 101-108.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29427593

Antioxidant

Giacoppo, S., Gugliandolo, A., Trubiani, O., Pollastro, F., Grassi, G., Bramanti, P., & Mazzon, E. (2017). Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264. 7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study. European journal of histochemistry: EJH61(1).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28348416

Anti-Bacterial

Appendino, G., Gibbons, S., Giana, A., Pagani, A., Grassi, G., Stavri, M., … & Rahman, M. M. (2008). Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure− activity study. Journal of natural products71(8), 1427-1430.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681481

Psoriasis

Wilkinson, J. D., & Williamson, E. M. (2007). Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of psoriasis. Journal of dermatological science45(2), 87-92.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17157480

Glaucoma

Colasanti, B. K., Craig, C. R., & Allara, R. D. (1984). Intraocular pressure, ocular toxicity and neurotoxicity after administration of cannabinol or cannabigerol. Experimental eye research39(3), 251-259.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6499952

Cancer

Baek, S. H., Kim, Y. O., Kwag, J. S., Choi, K. E., & Jung, W. Y. (1998). Boron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified Lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells. Archives of pharmacal research21(3), 353.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9875457

Borrelli, F., Pagano, E., Romano, B., Panzera, S., Maiello, F., Coppola, D., … & Izzo, A. A. (2014). Colon carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid. Carcinogenesis35(12), 2787-2797.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25269802

THCV – (Click for THCV Guide)

Anxiety

O’brien, L. D., Wills, K. L., Segsworth, B., Dashney, B., Rock, E. M., Limebeer, C. L., & Parker, L. A. (2013). Effect of chronic exposure to rimonabant and phytocannabinoids on anxiety-like behavior and saccharin palatability. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior103(3), 597-602.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23103902

Diabetes

Jadoon, K. A., Ratcliffe, S. H., Barrett, D. A., Thomas, E. L., Stott, C., Bell, J. D., … & Tan, G. D. (2016). Efficacy and safety of cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabivarin on glycemic and lipid parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study. Diabetes Care, dc160650.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573936

Horváth, B., Mukhopadhyay, P., Haskó, G., & Pacher, P. (2012). The endocannabinoid system and plant-derived cannabinoids in diabetes and diabetic complications. The American journal of pathology180(2), 432-442.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3349875/

Wargent, E. T., Zaibi, M. S., Silvestri, C., Hislop, D. C., Stocker, C. J., Stott, C. G., … & Cawthorne, M. A. (2013). The cannabinoid Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity. Nutrition & diabetes3(5), e68.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3671751/

Concentration

Deiana, S., Watanabe, A., Yamasaki, Y., Amada, N., Arthur, M., Fleming, S., … & Platt, B. (2012). Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive–compulsive behaviour. Psychopharmacology219(3), 859-873.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21796370

Neuroprotective Effects for Parkinson's

García C, Palomo-Garo C, García-Arencibia M, Ramos J, Pertwee R, Fernández-Ruiz J. Symptom-relieving and neuroprotective effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ9-THCV in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2011;163(7):1495-1506. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01278.x.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21323909

THC Antagonist

Thomas, A., Stevenson, L. A., Wease, K. N., Price, M. R., Baillie, G., Ross, R. A., & Pertwee, R. G. (2005). Evidence that the plant cannabinoid Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabivarin is a cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonist. British journal of pharmacology146(7), 917-926.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16205722

Pertwee, R. G., Thomas, A., Stevenson, L. A., Ross, R. A., Varvel, S. A., Lichtman, A. H., … & Razdan, R. K. (2007). The psychoactive plant cannabinoid, Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol, is antagonized by Δ8‐and Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabivarin in mice in vivo. British journal of pharmacology150(5), 586-594.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17245367

Pertwee, R. G. (2008). The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabivarin. British journal of pharmacology153(2), 199-215.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17828291

Ma, Y. L., Weston, S. E., Whalley, B. J., & Stephens, G. J. (2008). The phytocannabinoid Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabivarin modulates inhibitory neurotransmission in the cerebellum. British journal of pharmacology154(1), 204-215.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18311186

Epilepsy

Izzo, A. A., Borrelli, F., Capasso, R., Di Marzo, V., & Mechoulam, R. (2009). Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb. Trends in pharmacological sciences30(10), 515-527.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19729208

Hill, A. J., Weston, S. E., Jones, N. A., Smith, I., Bevan, S. A., Williamson, E. M., … & Whalley, B. J. (2010). Δ9‐Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats. Epilepsia51(8), 1522-1532.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20196794

Inflammation

Bátkai, S., Mukhopadhyay, P., Horváth, B., Rajesh, M., Gao, R. Y., Mahadevan, A., … & Maccarrone, M. (2012). Δ8‐Tetrahydrocannabivarin prevents hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through cannabinoid CB2 receptors. British journal of pharmacology165(8), 2450-2461.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21470208

Bolognini, D., Costa, B., Maione, S., Comelli, F., Marini, P., Di Marzo, V., … & Pertwee, R. G. (2010). The plant cannabinoid Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabivarin can decrease signs of inflammation and inflammatory pain in mice. British journal of pharmacology160(3), 677-687.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20590571

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Hill, A. J., Williams, C. M., Whalley, B. J., & Stephens, G. J. (2012). Phytocannabinoids as novel therapeutic agents in CNS disorders. Pharmacology & therapeutics133(1), 79-97.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21924288

Schizophrenia

Cascio, M. G., Zamberletti, E., Marini, P., Parolaro, D., & Pertwee, R. G. (2015). The phytocannabinoid, Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabivarin, can act through 5‐HT1A receptors to produce antipsychotic effects. British journal of pharmacology172(5), 1305-1318.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363799

Acne & Skin Treatment

Oláh, A., Markovics, A., Szabó‐Papp, J., Szabó, P. T., Stott, C., Zouboulis, C. C., & Bíró, T. (2016). Differential effectiveness of selected non‐psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment. Experimental dermatology25(9), 701-707.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27094344/

CBDV – (Click for CBDV Guide)

Anticonvulsant Effects for Epilepsy

Amada N, Yamasaki Y, Williams CM, Whalley BJ (2013). “Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression”. PeerJ. 1: e214. doi:10.7717/peerj.214

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3840466/

Iannotti, F. A., Hill, C. L., Leo, A., Alhusaini, A., Soubrane, C., Mazzarella, E., … & Stephens, G. J. (2014). Nonpsychotropic plant cannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabidiol (CBD), activate and desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in vitro: potential for the treatment of neuronal hyperexcitability. ACS chemical neuroscience5(11), 1131-1141.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25029033

Hill, A. J., Mercier, M. S., Hill, T. D. M., Glyn, S. E., Jones, N. A., Yamasaki, Y., … & Williams, C. M. (2012). Cannabidivarin is anticonvulsant in mouse and rat. British journal of pharmacology167(8), 1629-1642.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22970845

Rosenberg, E. C., Patra, P. H., & Whalley, B. J. (2017). Therapeutic effects of cannabinoids in animal models of seizures, epilepsy, epileptogenesis, and epilepsy-related neuroprotection. Epilepsy & Behavior70, 319-327.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28190698

Gaston, T. E., & Friedman, D. (2017). Pharmacology of cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior70, 313-318.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28087250

Hill, T. D. M., Cascio, M. G., Romano, B., Duncan, M., Pertwee, R. G., Williams, C. M., … & Hill, A. J. (2013). Cannabidivarin‐rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor‐independent mechanism. British journal of pharmacology170(3), 679-692.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23902406

Nausea

Rosenberg, E. C., Tsien, R. W., Whalley, B. J., & Devinsky, O. (2015). Cannabinoids and epilepsy. Neurotherapeutics12(4), 747-768.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604191/

Acne & Skin Diseases

Oláh, A., Markovics, A., Szabó‐Papp, J., Szabó, P. T., Stott, C., Zouboulis, C. C., & Bíró, T. (2016). Differential effectiveness of selected non‐psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment. Experimental dermatology25(9), 701-707.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27094344

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Hill, A. J., Williams, C. M., Whalley, B. J., & Stephens, G. J. (2012). Phytocannabinoids as novel therapeutic agents in CNS disorders. Pharmacology & therapeutics133(1), 79-97.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21924288

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